Diets with a sharp restriction of carbohydrates based on reducing the consumption of foods with a high glycemic index. There are various modifications of these diets, but the basic essence boils down to the drastic restriction of carbohydrates-up to 30% of calories (100 g); to raise the proportion of protein-20-30%; and the main energy revenues provided by fat-about 50-60% of the daily calorie ration.
The most vivid example of low-carb diets – Atkins diet, in the first two weeks of which receipt of carbohydrates is limited to 20 grams, later-50 grams. In chronic shortage of carbohydrates food to support the normal indicators of liver glycogen glycemic failover is utilized. At full absence of receipt of carbohydrates it stocks expire 48 hours, accompanied by partial dehydration. The future for gluconeogenesis activates the oxidation of fats; to ensure energopotreb the liver and muscles: metabolize free fatty acids, and direct their oxidation leads to the formation of ketone bodies (acetone, acetoacetat,-gìdroksibutirat), which can be used as fuel all the fabrics that contain mitochondria. With a sharp limit the intake of carbohydrates (less than 50 g per day) develops ketosis. Currently there is no data about the long-term (over 12 months) use of low-carb diets. But, according to the results of scientific works ranging from six weeks to one year, compliance with such diets for six months leads to a series of favorable changes in the body: the reduction of body weight, content of triglycerides, pro-inflammatory markers of blood; increasing the number of low-density lipoproteins, high-density lipoproteins levels (HDL). Against the background of increased content of ketone bodies is suppressed appetite, greatly reduced the figures on an empty stomach and postprandial glycemia by decreasing hepatic production of glucose and insulin levels. An additional factor that improves the action of insulin, might be elevated levels of Leucine which is celebrated during the low-carb diet with excessive consumption of protein. Collectively, these changes stimulate the formation of FFA and glycerol from deposited with triglycerides. But these changes were demonstrated only in short-term studies. And when comparing the results of reducing body mass on the background of low-carb dieting and the observance of it within one year loss of body weight were comparable. At the same time is marked by a number of negative consequences of a sharp restriction of carbohydrates the food, especially in studies that last more than six months: reducing skinny weight, reducing the content of important micronutrients in the blood (potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron) and increase the level of homocysteine, cholesterol LDL and FFA; strengthening the urinary excretion of calcium in the urine and increased risk of nephrolithiasis. Excessive inflows FFA in the liver, fat and muscle tissue for a long time leads to disruption of insulin sensitivity at the receptor level. This is especially true for low-carb diets high in fat. A strong limitation of vegetables and fruits and frequent consumption of meat increases the possibility of developing different neoplasms in patients observe low-carb diet.
Studies have shown that low-carb diet effectively reduces blood pressure and is the best in hypertension.
Studies have shown that all, without exception, diabetes low-carb diet provides the most stable low levels of sugar in the blood and provides a gradual disappearance of symptoms of diabetic foot and other injuries that cause diabetes. Also low-carb diet provides increased the body’s sensitivity to insulin and in some patients with diabetes can retreat subject to strict rules of food.
Reduce consumption of carbohydrates is a much more effective method of weight loss than low-fat diets, evidenced by the findings of a large study at Harvard University. Analysis of results of research 53 67000 diets has led to the conclusion that those who for a year was sitting on low-fat diets, turned out to be about one kilo heavier than those who used the diet with low carbohydrate.
Low-carb diets in bodybuilding and sports
Note, however, that all the low-carb diet lead to repressed State, low power indices and muscular endurance. Also the total testosterone level decreases. It also reduces muscle mass. For bodybuilders low-carb diet featured during the drying process in the presence of a powerful pharmacological steroid support. Otherwise the muscles disappear-body split them into amino acids and burn to cover energy shortfalls. Of course in the presence of a large number of proteins and fats in the diet muscle mass will stay at the same level, but losing weight (fat) almost did not happen.